cakravartin mfn. rolling everywhere without obstruction; m. a ruler the wheels of whose chariot roll everywhere without obstruction, emperor, sovereign of the world , ruler of a Cakra (or country described as extending from sea to sea ; 12 princes beginning with Bharata are esp. considered as Cakravartins; mfn. supreme, holding the highest rank among (gen. or in comp.); f. the state of a universal emperor
dvija mfn. twice-born; m. a man of any one of the first 3 classes, any Aryan, (esp.) a Brahman (re-born through investiture with the sacred thread); a bird or any oviparous animal (appearing first as an egg); a tooth (as growing twice)
tradition The use of the term “Tradition” follows Dr. Adrian Snodgrass (Architecture, Time and Eternity Studies in the Stellar and Temporal Symbolism of Traditional Buildings vol. 1, New Delhi: Sata-Pitaka Series, 1990): ‘The term “Tradition”, from latin tradare, “to give over”, here designates a transmission from one generation to another of doctrines concerning a direct, intuitive, knowledge, free from the accidents and limitations of particularities. Tradition in this sense is deemed to trace back in an unbroken “chain” (shelsheleth in Hebrew, silsilah in Arabic, and paramparam in Sanskrit) to a revealed source.’ (p.1, n.1)
In the metaphysical and concrete sense, ‘tradition’ – we have sufficiently repeated over and again – is nothing more but the presence of such superior realisations as a continuity established from generations to generations by a chain of superior individualities.
ascesis The original meaning of the term ascesis – from the Greek άσκέω, “to train” – was simply “training” and, in a Roman sense, discipline. The corresponding Indo-Aryan term is tapas (tapa or tapo in Pāli) and it has a like significance; except that, from the root tap, which means “to be hot” or “to glow,” it also contains the idea of an intensive concentration, of glowing, almost of fire.
There is an ascesis that consists simply in sobriety, and which is sufficient for the naturally spiritual man; and there is another which consists in fighting against passions, the degree of this ascesis depending upon the demands of the individual nature.
yoga is the most direct and also the most ample manifestation possible of a spiritual principle which, as such, must be able to reveal itself whenever the nature of things permits or demands it: this principle is essentially that of a technique – or an “alchemy” – designed to open the human microcosm to the divine influx. Yoga itself is defined as a “cessation of the activities of the mental substance,” and strictly speaking there is only one Yoga – the art of perfect concentration, of which Hatha-Yoga and Raja-Yoga are the two essential forms, and of which the other Yogas (Laya and Mantra) are special modalities or developments. It is true that the word Yoga also designates – in virtue of its literal sense of “Union” – the three great paths of gnosis (jnana), love (bhakti) and action (karma); but the connection with the principle that characterizes the yogic art is then much less direct. Yoga, as defined in the Sutras of Patanjali and related works, is always the interior alchemy, or the ensemble of technical means for realizing – with the aid of intellectual, corporal, moral and sometimes emotional elements – union through ecstasy or samadhi. [Language of the Self, A View of Yoga]